It is the grouping of a subgroup of neoplasms that have two main characteristics in common:
- Blood cells (red blood cells, leukocytes and platelets) show abnormalities in size and shape since their genesis in the bone marrow;
- These same cells show up in numbers below what is considered normal (pancytopenia) in the bloodstream.
There are three subgroups of diseases classified as myelodysplasia:
- Chronic deficiencies in the number of blood cells, but without a progressive characteristic for leukemia, depending on the severity of the syndrome;
- Red blood cells with an abnormal amount of iron;
- Chronic deficiency in the number of blood cells and with a progressive characteristic for leukemia, determined by the severity of the syndrome.
- There are several levels of severity ranging from mild (mild anemia) to very severe (progression to acute myeloid leukemia). This syndrome can appear in children, but is more common in older people and men.