Hematology is the medical specialty that studies diseases related to blood and hematopoietic organs. In cancer, the specialty is called onco-hematology and deals with liquid tumors such as leukemias. Learn more.

Hematology is the area of ​​medicine that studies diseases related to blood and hematopoietic organs (bone marrow, ganglia and spleen).

Hematologists are doctors who care for patients with diseases related to these elements and the organs where they are produced. These diseases can be malignant, such as leukemia, multiple myeloma, myelodysplasia, lymphoma, and others, or benign, such as anemia, platelet-related diseases, bone marrow aplasia, clotting disorders, among others. They provide clinical or oncological treatment in the area of ​​oncohematology when appropriate and are also responsible for the indication and performance of bone marrow transplants.

Hematologists can also work in the blood bank area (hemotherapy) and in the laboratory area through microscopic analysis of blood slides (hemogram) and bone marrow (myelogram), in addition to other specific tests.

Onco-hematology deals with hematological cancers, which concern the types that originate from blood cells. As it is a type of cancer capable of circulating through the body, they are called “liquid tumors”. Unlike tumors that affect solid parts of the human body, such as organs, hematological cancers manifest differently and the suggested treatment also requires another type of approach.

The specificity of this type of cancer prevents them from being treated with a surgical procedure. Therefore, the indication for treatment usually consists of chemotherapy, radiotherapy, monoclonal antibodies and eventually bone marrow transplantation.

Unlike the spinal cord, the bone marrow is a tissue found inside the bones, responsible for the production of three cell lines that are part of the blood and the immune system: the red blood cells (or red blood cells), which carry oxygen to the tissues; leukocytes (or white blood cells), which defend the body against infectious agents; and platelets, which act in blood clotting. In adults, the bone marrow that produces blood cells is located in specific bones such as the vertebrae, collarbone, sternum and pelvic bones. Long bones such as those in the arms and legs have blood cell-producing bone marrow replaced by fatty bone marrow. Therefore, the main places chosen by hematologists to perform bone marrow exams are the pelvis and sternum.

At Grupo Oncoclínicas, hematologists always work together with multidisciplinary teams, offering close, individualized and comprehensive care.

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