Otolaryngology is the specialty that works in diseases of the nose, sinuses, throat and ears, including cancer. In oncology, the specialist will treat tumors in this area, the most common being the larynx. Learn more.

The otolaryngologist is the specialist who treats diseases of the nose, sinuses, throat and ears, rhinitis, sinusitis, nasal obstruction, snoring, tonsillitis, voice changes, otitis, hearing loss, loss of smell, tinnitus and dizziness are some examples. of the conditions that the specialty treats, in addition to health and diseases of the head and neck.

The Oncological Otolaryngologist will treat cancers in this entire area of ​​the body. The most common tumors are those of the larynx.


The examination to detect any signs of cancer includes palpation of the lymph nodes in the neck, the use of endoscopes and rigid and/or flexible laryngoscopes or to examine these areas in addition to imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT scans and MRI.

Laryngoscopy and indirect pharyngoscopy. The examination is performed under topical anesthesia and rarely light sedation (when necessary). The doctor uses small mirrors placed at the back of the mouth to visualize the throat, the base of the tongue, and part of the larynx (vocal cords), and the transition structures of the rhinopharynx, oropharynx and larynx are examined, recorded and photographed. A study of the mobility of the vocal cords is carried out. The exam that can diagnose reflux disease, vocal cord nodules, functional alterations of the larynx, external compressions, masses, among many other possible diagnoses.

Laryngoscopy and direct pharyngoscopy. In this exam, the doctor inserts a flexible endoscope through the nose or a rigid endoscope through the mouth to look at some areas that cannot be easily seen with the indirect exam. Both types are performed in the office. It is an examination performed in the office by an otolaryngologist, with the aim of visualizing regions of the oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx and larynx. It is painless, done with local anesthesia in the form of a spray if the patient has a lot of nausea.


Thyroid cancer. Thyroid cancer is the most common cancer of the head and neck region and affects three times more women than men. Differentiated carcinomas are the most frequent types. Among them are papillary (between 50% and 80% of cases), follicular (from 15% to 20% of cases) and Hürthle cells. There are also poorly differentiated carcinomas (about 10% of cases) and undifferentiated carcinomas (also about 10%).

Laryngeal cancer. The larynx is the part of the throat that contains the vocal cords and participates in speech, but it has other important functions such as breathing and protecting the lungs from aspiration of food during swallowing. It is divided into subglottis, glottis and supraglottis. The vocal cords are located in the glottis, small folds that vibrate with the passage of air and are part of the vocal apparatus. Malignant tumors can arise in any region of the larynx, but 60% of them develop in the glottis. The most common type is squamous cell carcinoma.

Mouth cancer. Cancer of the mouth (also known as cancer of the lip and oral cavity) is a malignant tumor that affects the lips, mouth structures such as the gums, cheeks, roof of the mouth, tongue (especially the edges) and the area under the tongue.

Esophageal cancer. The esophagus is a hollow muscular tube, located between the trachea and the spine and that connects the throat to the stomach, where tumors can grow. The main symptom of esophageal cancer is difficulty swallowing. In the initial phase, this difficulty happens with solid foods. Then with the pasty ones and, finally, with the liquids. Therefore, most people with the disease lose weight and experience anemia and dehydration.

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