What is vascular surgery?
Before talking about vascular surgery, it is important to introduce the subject with angiology; medical specialty that studies, diagnoses and treats vascular diseases (which affect blood vessels and lymphatic vessels, such as varicose veins, aneurysms and arterial obstructions).
Vascular surgery and cancer
Patients with tumors with invasion of vascular structures can undergo vascular and endovascular surgery (subspecialty of vascular surgery for the treatment of circulatory diseases, using catheters and guides, manipulated remotely and monitored by screens/monitors)
In surgery, there is reconstruction of the vessels (arteries and veins) affected by the tumor. The procedure contributes to improving the prognosis and survival of patients. In addition to support in cancer treatment, the specialty deals with arterial (atherosclerosis), venous (varicose veins, deep thrombosis) and lymphatic diseases. [two]
The specialist in this area is the angiologist. Being much sought after for the treatment of varicose veins, the angiologist also takes care of the following diseases:
- Arteriosclerosis – excess fat and other elements in the arteries decreasing blood supply to the body;
- Cerebral Vascular Insufficiency – cerebral vessels with an obstructive process that, if not treated, can cause a stroke (Cerebral Vascular Accident);
- Deep Vein Thrombosis – problem with blood clotting, obstruction of deep veins;
- Arterial aneurysm – dilatation of arteries with risk of rupture;
- Vasculitis – inflammation of the vessels.
The angiologist works together with vascular surgery, which is also a medical specialty (responsible for taking care of lymphatic and blood vessels). It is the vascular surgeon who treats both the vessels of the abdominal region, the legs, the chest, the neck and also the upper limbs, acting in the correction of both arteries with stenosis – arteries that have suffered narrowing, as well as dilated, obstructed or suffered some form of trauma. 
Adverse effects of vascular surgery
The patient who needs this type of surgery, in general, has disseminated atherosclerosis, with a higher risk of AMI (myocardial infarction), stroke or death. Therefore, the physician must carry out a thorough preoperative evaluation in order to identify the major risk factors and correct what is possible. In addition, postoperative attention is needed to specific aspects of vascular surgery.
What is arteriosclerosis?
Atherosclerosis is the accumulation of fat, calcium and other elements in the walls of the arteries, causing chronic inflammation and difficulty in the passage of blood.
Attacking the coronary artery, the problem can cause chest pain during exertion (angina pectoris) or a heart attack. In the case of the carotid arteries (neck arteries) it causes visual disturbances, transient paralysis and fainting or stroke; in the iliac and femoral arteries (arteries of the lower limbs), intermittent claudication (pain in the legs when walking), hair loss, atrophy of the skin, nails and muscles and risk of limb loss.
Smoking, physical inactivity, as well as a high-fat diet and family history contribute to the development of atherosclerosis. The angiologist and/or vascular surgeon is the physician indicated to evaluate and treat this condition. 
What is sclerotherapy?
Sclerotherapy is the treatment of varicose veins or spider veins on the skin, without the need for surgery. The angiologist and/or vascular surgeon makes an application of substances or even laser for this treatment. Find out more below:
Sclerotherapy with liquid substance – consists of the application of an injection with a sclerosing product directly into the varicose veins.
Foam sclerotherapy – indicated for specific cases, it consists of applying a substance, in the form of dense foam, directly to the varicose veins, which causes a reaction in the walls of the vessels, closing them.
Laser Sclerotherapy – The laser treats varicose veins by cauterization while liquid or foam sclerotherapy treats inflammation of the spider vein. It is performed in association with liquid or foam sclerotherapy. Laser sclerotherapy is not recommended for people with dark skin or heavily tanned skin. 
1- [MINISTRY OF HEALTH, ACCESSED 08/27/2021 >> https://antigo.saude.gov.br/atencao-especializada-e-hospitalar/especialidades/angiologia/prevencao-e-diagnostico/839-angiologia/ 40963-angiology]
2 – [AC CAMARGO CÂNCER CENTER, ACCESSED ON 08/27/2021 >> https://www.accamargo.org.br/sobre-o-cancer-especialidades-medicas-de-suporte/cirurgicas/cirurgia-vascular-e -endovascular]
3 – [BRAZILIAN SOCIETY OF ANGIOLOGY AND VASCULAR SURGERY, ACCESSED ON 08/27/2021 >>https://www.facebook.com/sbacvnacional/posts/1858202867584532]
4- [BRAZILIAN SOCIETY OF ANGIOLOGY AND VASCULAR SURGERY, ACCESSED ON 08/27/2021 >> https://sbacv.org.br/por-que-tratar-vasinhos-e-varizes-com-angiólogo-e-ou -vascular-surgeon/]